This discussion paper focuses on four questions: how do migration and urbanization together transform the socioeconomic and cultural life patterns of the province of Balochistan in Pakistan? Second, have migration and urbanization aggravated security and eroded institutions of governance in the province? Third, has the 18th Constitutional Amendment contributed towards deflating pressures of migration and urbanization and set a direction for social sector development (empowering the marginalized through local governance) and curbing terrorism? Finally, how has the arrival and continuous stay of Afghan refugees impacted urban life in and around Quetta city? In this context, some preliminary research findings and ideas are presented in this discussion paper for developing a comprehensive governance and development policy that can be applied to cities in the province. While the study adopts a broad approach to analyzing the said questions, data provided refers to the period between 2000 and 2016.